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CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 402.3 Pipeline Hoop Stress Check From Operating Pressure (Onshore)
Calculate onshore pipeline hoop stress from operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section 402.3). The pressure is user input. Use this calculator for pipelines or piping with small changes in elevation. For platform piping select the no external pressure option.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 402.5 Expansion Spool Longitudinal Combined And Expansion Stress Check (Onshore)
Calculate bending moment and reaction force for an onshore pipeline expansion spool using simple beam theory. Bending is assumed to be in plane, and torsion is assumed to be equal to zero.
Stress checks include longitudinal stress, combined stress and flexibility stress for unrestrained pipelines (ASME B31.4 section 402.5 to 402.7 and 403.3).

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 402.5 Pipeline Bi Plane Longitudinal Combined And Expansion Stress Check (Onshore)
Calculate bi plane longitudinal stress, combined stress and expansion stress for restrained and unrestrained onshore pipelines (ASME B31.4 section 402.5 to 402.7 and 403.3). Combined stress can be calculated using either Tresca's equation, or von Mises equation. Bending stress is calculated from in plane and out of plane bending moments and stress intensity factors. FEA analysis is recommended for detailed stress analysis of components.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 402.5 Pipeline In Plane Longitudinal Combined And Expansion Stress Check (Onshore)
Calculate in plane longitudinal stress, combined stress and expansion stress for restrained and unrestrained onshore pipelines (ASME B31.4 section 402.5 to 402.7 and 403.3). Combined stress can be calculated using either Tresca's equation, or von Mises equation. The stress intensity factor can either be set to one (straight pipelines), or user defined. The torsion moment is assumed to be zero.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 403.2 Pipeline Wall Thickness From Operating Pressure (Onshore)
Calculate onshore pipeline wall thickness from operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section 403.2). The pressure is user input. Use this calculator for pipelines or piping with small changes in elevation.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 403.9 Pipeline Maximum Displacement Flexibility Check
Calculate pipe spool flexibility maximum displacement check (ASME B31.1 section 119.7, ASME B31.3 section 319.4, ASME B31.4 section 403.9, and ASME B31.8 section 833.7). A formal flexibility assessment is generally not required for pipe sections with displacement less than the calculated maximum displacement. Reaction forces and moments may require separate analysis.
The developed pipe length is the length measured along the pipe center line. The difference between the developed length, and the straight line length is an approximate measure of the offsets in the line.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 404.3 Pipeline Extruded Branch Reinforcement (Offshore)
Calculate offshore pipeline branch reinforcement area for extruded branch connections (ASME B31.4 section 404.3).
The corroded extrusion diameter should be used for Do. The design wall thicknesses include the corrosion allowance. For platform piping select the no external pressure option.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 404.3 Pipeline Extruded Branch Reinforcement (Onshore)
Calculate onshore pipeline branch reinforcement area for extruded branch connections (ASME B31.4 section 404.3).
The corroded extrusion diameter should be used for Do. The design wall thicknesses include the corrosion allowance.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 404.3 Pipeline Welded Branch Reinforcement (Offshore)
Calculate offshore pipeline branch reinforcement area for welded branch connections (ASME B31.4 section 404.3).
The branch opening length is the maximum of the branch corroded internal diameter, and the axial length of the opening. For platform piping select the no external pressure option.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 404.3 Pipeline Welded Branch Reinforcement (Onshore)
Calculate onshore pipeline branch reinforcement area for welded branch connections (ASME B31.4 section 404.3).
The branch opening length is the maximum of the branch corroded internal diameter, and the axial length of the opening.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 437.4 Pipeline Hydrostatic And Pneumatic Leak Test Pressure And Hoop Stress Check (Offshore)
Calculate offshore pipeline test pressure and wall stress check from operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section 437.4).
The operating pressure is user input. Use this calculator for pipelines or piping with small changes in elevation. For platform piping select the no external pressure option.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 437.4 Pipeline Hydrostatic And Pneumatic Leak Test Pressure And Hoop Stress Check (Onshore)
Calculate onshore pipeline test pressure and wall stress check from operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section 437.4).
The operating pressure is user input. Use this calculator for pipelines or piping with small changes in elevation. For platform piping select the no external pressure option.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 451.6.2.8 Pipeline Allowable Ripple Height From Hoop Stress (Offshore)
Calculate offshore pipeline maximum allowable ripple height from hoop stress at the maximum operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section 451.6.2.8).
The hoop stress is calculated using Barlow's formula. The mid wall option (Dm), should only be used for offshore pipelines. The hoop stress may be calculated from either the nominal wall thickness, or the pressure containment wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus the corrosion allowance). For platform piping select the no external pressure option.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section 451.6.2.8 Pipeline Allowable Ripple Height From Hoop Stress (Onshore)
Calculate onshore pipeline maximum allowable ripple height from hoop stress at the maximum operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section 451.6.2.8).
The hoop stress is calculated using Barlow's formula. The mid wall option (Dm), should only be used for offshore pipelines. The hoop stress may be calculated from either the nominal wall thickness, or the pressure containment wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus the corrosion allowance).

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section A402.3 Expansion Spool Longitudinal Combined And Expansion Stress Check (Offshore)
Calculate bending moment and reaction force for an offshore pipeline expansion spool using simple beam theory. Bending is assumed to be in plane, and torsion is assumed to be equal to zero.
Stress checks include longitudinal stress, combined stress and flexibility stress for unrestrained pipelines (ASME B31.4 section A402.3.5)

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section A402.3 Pipeline Bi Plane Longitudinal Combined And Expansion Stress Check (Offshore)
Calculate bi plane longitudinal stress, combined stress and expansion stress for restrained and unrestrained offshore pipelines (ASME B31.4 section A402.3.5). Combined stress can be calculated using either Tresca's equation, or von Mises equation. Bending stress is calculated from in plane and out of plane bending moments and stress intensity factors. FEA analysis is recommended for detailed stress analysis of components.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section A402.3 Pipeline Hoop Stress Check From Operating Pressure (Offshore)
Calculate offshore pipeline hoop stress from operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section A402.3).
The pressure is user input. Use this calculator for pipelines or piping with small changes in elevation. For platform piping select the no external pressure option.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section A402.3 Pipeline In Plane Longitudinal Combined And Expansion Stress Check (Offshore)
Calculate in plane longitudinal stress, combined stress and expansion stress for restrained and unrestrained offshore pipelines (ASME B31.4 section A402.3.5). Combined stress can be calculated using either Tresca's equation, or von Mises equation. The stress intensity factor can either be set to one (straight pipelines), or user defined. The torsion moment is assumed to be zero.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.4 Section A402.3 Pipeline Wall Thickness From Operating Pressure (Offshore)
Calculate offshore pipeline wall thickness from operating pressure (ASME B31.4 section A402.3). The pressure is user input. Use this calculator for pipelines or piping with small changes in elevation.

CALCULATOR ASME B31.8 Maximum Flange Bending Moment To Prevent Leakage
Calculate the maximum flange bending moment to prevent leakage for a flanged joint with no self sealing characteristics (ASME B31.8 appendix E).

CALCULATOR Gas Liquid And Two Phase Fluid Density
Fluid density for single phase fluid, single phase gas, and two phase gas liquid.
For two phase fluids the fluid density and composition may be calculated from either the average fluid density, the gas oil ratio GOR, the gas mass fraction, the gas volume fraction, or may be user defined.

CALCULATOR Gas Liquid And Two Phase Pipeline Fluid Density Amd Flow Rate
Pipeline fluid density and flow rate for single phase fluid, single phase gas, and two phase gas liquid.
For two phase fluids the fluid density and composition may be calculated from either the average fluid density, the gas oil ratio GOR, the gas mass fraction, the gas volume fraction, or may be user defined. Fluid flow rate (velocity, mass flow rate, volume flow rate, and gas mole flow rate) may be calculated from liquid volume flow rate, gas mole flow rate, total volume flow rate, total mass flow rate, or fluid velocity.

CALCULATOR Gas Liquid And Two Phase Pipeline Fluid Density And Volume
Pipeline fluid density, mass and volume for single phase fluid, single phase gas, and two phase gas liquid.
For two phase fluids the fluid density and composition may be calculated from either the average fluid density, the gas oil ratio GOR, the gas mass fraction, the gas volume fraction, or may be user defined. Fluid quantities (mass, volume, and gas moles) may be calculated from liquid volume, gas moles, total volume, total mass, or pipeline length.

CALCULATOR Pipeline Axial Load From Temperature And Pressure (Single Layer Pipe Or User Defined)
Calculate pipeline restrained and unrestrained global axial load from temperature and pressure for single layer pipe. Pipeline section properties are either calculated or user defined. The axial load is calculated using the thick wall formula (API RP 1111 and DNV OS F101). Loads are positive in tension, and negative in compression.
Nominal pipe diameter and wall thickness should normally be used for axial load calculations. Pipe wall stress is indicative only, and should not be used for stress checks. Stress checks should account for local variations in wall thickness and diameter.

CALCULATOR Pipeline Internal Pressure External Pressure And Pressure Difference From Elevation
Pipeline internal and external static pressure from elevation, for single phase liquid, single phase gas, and two phase gas liquid.
External pressure is optional. For onshore pipelines use the ignore external pressure option. The two phase calculation is approximate and should be used for information only. For more accurate results, or to calculate transients, specialised fluid flow software should be used.

CALCULATOR Pipeline Mass And Weight Per Length (Multi Layer Pipe) [Check]
Calculate pipe mass per length and weight per length for multi layer pipelines. Pipe weight may be either
• wet empty
• wet full
• dry empty
• dry full

CALCULATOR Pipeline Test Pressure From Operating Pressure And Elevation
Pipeline test pressure from operating pressure and elevation. The operating fluid may be single phase liquid, single phase gas, or two phase gas liquid. The test fluid may be single phase gas, or single phase liquid.
For more accurate results, or to calculate transients, specialised fluid flow software should be used. For onshore pipelines use the ignore external pressure option.

WWW LINK WWW LINK : US GPO : CFR 195 Hazardous Liquid Pipelines 
WWW LINK WWW LINK : Wikipedia : Barlows Formula  Thin Wall Hoop Stress 
WWW LINK WWW LINK : Wikipedia : Cylinder Stress 
WWW LINK WWW LINK : Wikipedia : Pressure Measurement 
WWW LINK WWW LINK : Wikipedia : Stress Mechanics 
WWW LINK WWW LINK : Wikipedia : Yield Surface 
CALCULATOR MODULE API 5L (2007) Line Pipe Specification
API 5L Diameter And Out Of Roundness Calculators : Line pipe maximum and minimum allowable fabricated diameter, and out of roundness for onshore and offshore pipelines.
API 5L Wall Thickness Calculators : Pipe maximum and minimum allowable fabricated wall thickness for onshore and offshore pipelines.
API 5L Nominal Mass Calculators : Line pipe joint nominal mass (nominal diameter, nominal wall thickness and actual joint length), and maximum and minimum allowable mass.
API 5L Carbon Equivalent Calculators : Carbon equivalent is an important material property affecting toughness. The silicon, manganese, copper, nickel, chrome, molybdenum, vanadium and boron components increase the effective carbon content of the material.
API 5L Yield Stress And Ultimate Stress Calculators : Specified minimum yield stress (SMYS) and specified minimum tensile stress (SMTS) for grades Bx to X120x. Stress values have been harmonised with ISO codes by rounding the values up to the nearest 5 MPa.
API 5L Line Pipe Data : API 5L line pipe diameter, joint length and tolerances.
Reference : API 5L : Specification for Line Pipe

CALCULATOR MODULE API RP 1102 (2007) Pipeline Highway And Railroad Crossings
API 1102 Pipeline Highway And Railroad Crossing Calculators : API 1102 includes data values in US units and SI units. For consistency, US unit data values are used throughout. User input values can be either US units or SI units. Use the setup page to change units for input and output values (click the Setup link).
Standard loads are included for single axle and tandem axle vehicles. For non standard loads download the free Keifner and Associates CEPA spreadsheet for a detailed surface loading analysis (see download link).
Reference : API RP 1102 : Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways

CALCULATOR MODULE ASME B31.1 (2014) Power Piping
ASME B31.1 Pipe Wall Thickness Calculators : Wall thickness calculators for straight pipe under internal pressure, and below or in the creep range.
ASME B31.1 Pipe Y W and f Factor Calculators : Pipe Y coefficient (table 104.1.2A), weld reduction factor W (table 102.4.7), and stress range factor f (section 102.3).
Pipe Axial Load Calculators : Pipe restrained and unrestrained axial load can be calculated using the thick wall equation (API RP 1111 and DNVOSF101). For process piping use the no external pressure option.
ASME B31 Maximum Flange Bending Moment Calculators : Estimate the maximum allowable flange bending moment without leakage. The gasket is assumed to have no self sealing capability.
Reference : ANSI/ASME B31.1 : Power Piping

CALCULATOR MODULE ASME B31.3 (2014) Process Piping
ASME B31.3 Pipe Wall Thickness Calculators : Wall thickness calculators for low pressure steel piping, high pressure (high temperature) steel piping, and non metallic piping.
ASME B31.3 Pipe Hoop Stress Calculators : Pipe wall hoop stress can be calculated for the nominal wall thickness, the minimum wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus the wall thickness tolerance), or the hoop wall thickness (the minimum wall thickness minus the corrosion allowance).
ASME B31.3 Pipe Test Pressure Calculators : The pipe test pressure should be greater than or equal to the maximum internal pressure multiplied by the test pressure factor. The R factor accounts for the difference in design stress at the test conditions and the design conditions.
ASME B31.3 Branch Reinforcement Calculators : ASME B31.3 welded branch reinforcement, and extruded branch check according to section 304.3.3 and 304.3.4. Branch reinforcement is calculated using the replacement area method. The cross section area of the replacement material must be greater than or equal to the cross section area of the branch opening.
ASME B31.3 Pipe Y W and f Factor Calculators : Pipe Y coefficient (table 304.1.1), weld reduction factor W (table 302.3.5), and stress range factor f (figure 302.3.5).
ASME B31.3 Displacement Stress And Sustained Stress Calculators : Displacement stress is calculated from the nominal diameter and wall thickness. Sustained stress is calculated from the nominal diameter and corroded wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus corrosion allowance).
ASME B31 Flexibility Calculators : Estimate maximum allowable displacement of spools. Further analysis is required if the displacement limit is exceeded.
ASME B31.3 Minimum Temperature Calculators : Minimum temperature without impact testing values are interpolated from Table 323.2.2A (curves A, B, C and D). The table values vary slightly from the values in Figure 323.2.2A.
Pipe Axial Load Calculators : Pipe restrained and unrestrained axial load can be calculated using the thick wall equation (API RP 1111 and DNVOSF101). For process piping use the no external pressure option.
ASME B31 Maximum Flange Bending Moment Calculators : Estimate the maximum allowable flange bending moment without leakage. The gasket is assumed to have no self sealing capability.
Reference : ANSI/ASME B31.3 : Process Piping

CALCULATOR MODULE ASME B31.4 (2012) Liquid Pipeline Stress Intensity Factors
ASME B31.4 Pipe Stress Intensification Factor Calculators : Calculate flexibility factor k, in plane stress intensification factor ii, out of plane stress intensification factor io, and flexibility characteristic h (ASME B31.4 table 402.11). Refer to the figures for symbols.
Reference : ANSI/ASME B31.4 : Liquid Pipelines

CALCULATOR MODULE ASME B31.8 (2014) Gas Pipeline Design
ASME B31.8 Pipe Wall Thickness Calculators : Pipe wall thickness is calculated using Barlow's equation. The mid wall option can be used for offshore pipelines where D/t ≤ 30. The corrosion allowance should include mechanical allowance (eg threads), erosion allowance and any other allowances. The design factor F includes an allowance for negative maufacturing tolerance or underthickness for approved pipeline specifications (841.1.1). The wall thickness for each pipeline section should be determined for the maximum static pressure or static pressure difference, allowing for local elevation and water depth.
ASME B31.8 Hoop Stress Calculators : Hoop stress is calculated from Barlow's equation using either the nominal wall thickness, or the minimum wall (the nominal wall thickness minus the corrosion allowance). The corrosion allowance should include mechanical allowance (eg threads), erosion allowance and any other allowances. The code includes an allowance for negative maufacturing tolerance or underthickness for approved pipeline specifications (841.1.1). The hoop stress for each pipeline section should be determined for the maximum static pressure or static pressure difference, allowing for local elevation and water depth.
ASME B31.8 Test Pressure Calculators : The pipeline test pressure should be calculated so that the local test pressure is greater than or equal to the local maximum operating pressure multiplied by the test pressure factor at all points on the pipeline, and accounting for elevation and variations in fluid density. Check that the local pipe wall hoop stress does not exceed an acceptable level. Refer also to Appendix N.
ASME B31.8 MAOP Calculators : Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) is the minimum of the design pressure, and the test pressure divided by the test pressure factor. The minimum design pressure and minimum test pressure for the pipeline system and components should be used.
ASME B31.8 Pipe Branch Reinforcement Calculators : Calculate the required reinforcement area for welded branches and extruded branches. The reinforcement area must be greater than or equal to the required area Ar. Only reinforcement within the reinforcement area can be included.
ASME B31.8 Pipe Ripple Calculators : Calculate the maximum allowable ripple height from the hoop stress at the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP).
ASME B31.8 Pipe Repair Calculators : Calculate the maximum grinding length for repairing dents and gouges, and estimate the maximum strain in dents from the radius of curvature.
ASME B31.8 Combined Stress Calculators : Calculate longitudinal stress, Tresca combined stress, Von Mises combined stress and flexibility stress for restrained and unrestrained pipelines.
ASME B31.8 Temperature Derating Calculators : Temperature derating factor for pipelines operating above 250 F (121 C).
ASME B31.8 Charpy Toughness Calculators : Minimum Charpy v notch absorbed energy for ductile fracture arrest.
ASME B31.8 Sour Gas Radius Of Exposure Calculators : Radius of exposure ROE is calculated using the Pasquel Gifford air dispersion equation.
ASME B31.8 Expansion Spool Calculators : Calculate expansion spool reaction force and bending moment from the end expansion length. Bending is assumed to be in plane. Torsion is assumed to equal zero. The effect of lateral pipe soil friction can also be included.
ASME B31 Flexibility Calculators : Estimate maximum allowable displacement of spools. Further analysis is required if the displacement limit is exceeded.
Pipe Axial Load Calculators : Pipe restrained and unrestrained axial load can be calculated using the thick wall equation (API RP 1111 and DNVOSF101). For onshore pipelines and platform piping use the no external pressure option.
ASME B31 Maximum Flange Bending Moment Calculators : Estimate the maximum allowable flange bending moment without leakage. The gasket is assumed to have no self sealing capability.
Internal And External Pressure Calculators : External pressure can be calculated from water depth or relative elevation. Internal pressure can be calculated from elevation for single phase gas, single phase liquid, or two phase gas liquid.
Reference : ANSI/ASME B31.8 : Gas Transmission And Distribution Piping Systems

CALCULATOR MODULE ASME B31.G (2012) Pipeline Corrosion Defect Assessment
ASME B31.G Calculators : ASME B31G should be used with the ASME B31 pipeline codes. It is not valid for cracks, unsmoothed mechanical damage, or corrosion in weld seams or the heat affected zone. The defect depth can be measured either by the maximum depth of the defect from the pipe surface, or by the remaining minimum wall thickness.
Level 0 Assessment : Use the level 0 analysis to determine the allowable defect length where pressure derating or repair is not required. Level 0 is suitable for rough screening of defects. The allowable defect length is calculated according to B31G (1991). Use the plot data page to display the allowable defect length in terms of variable B. The pipe nominal wall thickness, and nominal diameter can be used for the level 0 analysis. A level 1 or higher analysis should be performed for defects which fail the level 0 analysis.
Note : Because of rounding, the calculated values from the level 0 analysis are slightly different to the tabled values from B31G (2012).
Level 1 Assessment : Use the level 1 analysis to determine the derating pressure for defects which have failed the level 0 analysis. The measured pipe wall thickness, and measured diameter should be used for the level 1 analysis. The external pressure should be set to zero for 'dry' pipelines (onshore or platform sections). A level 2 or higher analysis can be performed where the level 1 analysis is not applicable, or to reduce the need for repair or pressure derating.
Level 2 Assessment : Download the free Keifner and Associates KAPA spreadsheet (see download link) when the level 1 analysis is not applicable, or to reduce the need for repair or pressure derating. The KAPA analysis uses the effective area method. KAPA uses the same methodology as RSTRENG (The RSTRENG methodology was developed by John Keifner).
Reference : ANSI/ASME B31.G Manual For Determining The Remaining Strength Of Corroded Pipelines

CALCULATOR MODULE High Temperature High Pressure Pipeline
Pipe Axial Load Calculators : Restrained axial load or effective axial load in a pipeline is due to the installation forces, and the difference between the temperature and pressure at installation and operation. Restraint can be because of soil friction, or due to fixed end conditions. The temperature forces are due to thermal expansion of the pipe wall. The pressure forces are due to the internal end cap force (the force required to constrain the pressurised fluid column inside the pipeline), and the hoop stress poisson force (which reduces the axial force). The axial load is calculated using the thick wall method, which is based on Lames equation (API RP 1111 and DNVOSF101)
Hobbs Lateral And Upheaval Buckling Calculators : The Hobbs method is a useful method for preliminary design for global buckling of pipelines lying on top of the seabed (the buckle zone must be unburied but the pipeline adjacent to the buckle can be buried). The Hobbs method should only be used within the pipe material elastic range. Generally the Hobbs method is suitable for buckle initiation calculations, but is not suitable for post buckle calculations. For more accurate results Finite Element Analysis (FEA) should be used.
Buried Pipeline Prop Buckling Calculators : The prop buckling model for buried pipelines uses a dimensionless numbers analysis based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results. The profile is assumed to be formed by a prop support, with a relatively stiff foundation under the pipe or beam. Buckle failure is assumed to occur when the soil download resistance is fully mobilised, corresponding to an upward displacement equal to 0.5% to 1% of the cover height. The model is approximate and calculates buckle initiation only. It is not suitable for post buckle calculations. For more accurate results, or to calculate the the post buckle configuration, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) should be used.
Pipeline Temperature Profile Calculators : The pipe temperature profile is aassumed to decay exponentially towards the ambient temperature. The temperature profile can be calculated either from temperature data points, from fluid pipe and soil properties, or from the decay constant.
Pipeline End Expansion Calculators : Pipe end expansion occurs because of changes in the temperature and pressure of the pipeline. The axial load is assumed to increase linearly from the pipe ends. The anchor points are the locations closest to the ends where the axial movement of the pipe is zero.
Pipeline Walking Calculators : Pipeline walking occurs during startup and shutdown of short hot flowlines. The pipeline walking model calculates the axial movement of the mid point of the pipeline. The model is suitable as a first pass assessment for short high temperature flowlines subject to repeated pressure and temperature cycling.

CALCULATOR MODULE Pipeline Cross Section
Pipe Diameter And Cross Section Area Calculators : Calculate pipe inside diameter, outside diameter, displaced cross section area, contents cross section area, and pipe wall cross section area. For multilayer pipes, the cross section area of each individual layer is also calculated.
Pipe Mass Calculators : Calculate displaced mass per length, contents mass per length, and pipe wall mass per length. For multilayer pipes, the mass per length of each individual layer is also calculated.
Pipe Axial Stiffness Calculators : Pipe axial stiffness is the sum of the cross section area times Young's modulus. For multilayer pipes, the total axial stiffness is the sum of the axial stiffness of each individual layer. Usually, only the pipe and internal liner layers are included in the axial stiffness. External coating layers are not continuous (due to the field joint), and do not contribute to the axial stiffness.
Pipe Bending Stiffness Calculators : Pipe bending stiffness is the sum of the second area moment area times Young's modulus. For multilayer pipes, the total bending stiffness is the sum of the axial stiffness of each individual layer. Usually, the bending stiffness is ignored. For spans, the concrete stiffness factor (CSF) can be used to accoun for the effect of concrete coating on span vibration. (refer to DNVRPF105 Pipeline Spans).
Pipe Heat Transfer Calculators : The overall pipe heat transfer coefficient is calculated from the heat resistance of the pipe layers, and the heat resistance of the soil. User defined film resistance for the internal and external fluid boundaries can also be included (user defined).
Check Calculators : Calculators marked [Check] include full check calculations and are recommended for validation and checking.

CALCULATOR MODULE Pipeline Design
Pipe Wall Thickness Calculators : Pipe wall thickness must be designed to contain the internal pressure at all points on the pipeline, allowing for elevation and external pressure. Wall thickness can be calculated using either Barlow's thin wall equation, or Lames thick wall equation, and for either user defined outside diameter (constant OD), or user defined inside diameter (constant ID).
Pipe Hoop Stress Calculators : Pipeline hoop stress can be calculated using either Barlow's thin wall equation, or Lame's thick wall equation. Barlow's equation ignores radial stress, but is sufficiently accurate for most pipelines (D/t ≥ 20). Lame's equation should be used for thick wall pipelines (D/t < 20).
Pipe Test Pressure Calculators : Pipeline test pressure must be calculated so that the local test pressure is greater than or equal to the local internal pressure multipled by the test pressure factor at all points on the pipeline, allowing for elevation and variations in fluid density. The local hoop stress during testing can be calculated using either Barlow's thin wall equation, or Lames thick wall equation.
Pipe Combined Stress Calculators : The combined stress (hoop stress, bending stress axial stress and torsion) can be calculated using either Tresca's equation, or Von Mises' equation.
Pipe Expansion Spool Calculators : Expansion spool bending moments are calculated using Euler beam theory. Bending is assumed to be inplane. Torsion is ignored. The combined stress (hoop stress, bending stress and axial stress) can be calculated using either Tresca's equation, or Von Mises' equation.
Pipe External Collapse Pressure Calculators : The external collapse pressure for submerged pipelines is calculated using either the Murphy and Langner equation, or the Timoshenko and Gere equation. Submerged pipelines should be designed so that the collapse pressure is greater than the external pressure at all points on the pipeline.
Pipe Axial Load Calculators : Pipeline restrained and unrestrained axial load is calculated from temperature and pressure using the DNV thick wall equation.
Pipe Wall Stress Distribution : Pipe wall radial stress, hoop stress and Tresca combined stress distribution are calculated using Lame's thick wall equation.
Internal And External Pressure Calculators : External pressure can be calculated from water depth or relative elevation. Internal pressure can be calculated from elevation for single phase gas, single phase liquid, or two phase gas liquid.
Pipe Data : General data values and design factors are included. For code specific calculations refer to the appropriate code based calculators.

DATA MODULE Line Pipe Diameter Wall Thickness Joint Length And Manufacturing Tolerances
Linepipe dimensions, outside diameter, joint length and manufacturing tolerances.
Note : API 5L data values are taken from API 5L 2007.
